http://doi.org/10.33698/NRF0258 Sushma Kumari Saini, Charanjeev Singh
Abstract: A study was conducted in a tertiary level hospital of a state government to find out job satisfaction among nursing personnel. A self-developed Job Satisfaction Questionnaire was administered to one hundred and seventy eight nurses who were selected by systematic random sampling. Results revealed that 77% nurses were satisfied or highly satisfied with their job, 1.7% were dissatisfied and rest 21.3% were undecided about their level of job satisfaction. On an average, nurses were satisfied with achievements related to job, recognition, work, responsibility, supervision and interpersonal relationship. Significantly higher number of married nurses were satisfied as compared to single nurses.
Significantly more number of nurses working in Intensive Care Units and Operation Theatre were satisfied as compare to nurses working in other areas of hospital as indicated by Chi Square Test. Higher number of Nursing Supervisors were satisfied than Bed Side Nurses and Nursing Administrators. More number of Nurses with professional qualification Diploma in General Nursing and Midwifery were satisfied as compared to degree holder nurses. Though these differences were statistically not significant.
Key Words: Job satisfaction, satisfied, dissatisfied, nursing.
Correspondence at :
Mrs. Sushma Kumari Saini
Clinical Instructor, National Institute of
Nursing Education, PGIMER,
Illness creates dependence. Sick needs not only medical care and treatment but nursing care also. This care is continuous requirement, twenty four hours a day and seven days a week. Such a care is multidimensional and complex and can be provided by nurses who are professionally sound and personally satisfied with their job. For improving nursing care it is the responsibility of hospital administration to provide an environment to keep nurses satisfied and emotionally stable which will in turn improve the quality of nursing care and satisfy the patients.
The present study is aimed to find out the levels of job satisfaction among nursing personnel. Materials and methods A state government tertiary level hospital was selected for study. Hospital has 1259 beds and 559 nurses are working in it. Nursing staff was divided into three groups i.e.
Nursing Administrators, Supervisors and Bedside Nurses. Nursing Superintendent, Matron and Assistant Matron were grouped as Administrators. Nursing Sisters were grouped as Supervisors and Staff Nurses as Bedside Nurses. All the Administrators, 50% Supervisors and 25% bedside nurses were selected by systematic random sampling. Total 178 nurses constituted the sample. Nurses were asked to fill a questionnaire, which is
comprised of two parts. Part A is comprised of socio demographic profile, part B comprised of job satisfaction scale based on F.Herzberg's
Motivation and Hygiene Theory. Job satisfaction scale is made up of ten sub scales based on ten factors of this theory. Among these four are motivating factors or satisfying factors viz. achievement, recognition, responsibility and work. Another six factors are hygiene or maintenance factors viz. policies, supervision, fringe benefits, interpersonal relationships, personal life and working conditions. Each sub scale consisted
of six statements (Total sixty statements).
Nurses were asked to answer each statement Nursing and Midwifery Research Journal, Vol-1, No. 2, Jan. 2005 25 on five points Likert Scale i.e. strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree. Five scores were given to the answer strongly agree, 4 scores to agree, 3 scores to undecided, 2 scores to disagree and one score to strongly disagree. Hence maximum score was 300 and minimum 60.
Sample Characteristics A total 178 nurses filled the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire. They were in the age range of 23-59 years (mean 42±8.6 years).About half (47.8%) nurses were in the age group of 41 to 50 years. All of them were females. Most of them were married (93.3%).
Majority were Hindus (95%) and from general category (86.5%). About two third of them were from urban background (64%). As per their academic qualifications 127(71.3%) nurses were undergraduate and rest 51(28.7%) were graduate and above. Professional qualifications of 165(92.7%) nurses was General Nursing and Midwifery and 13(7.3%) had completed B.Sc. Nursing (Table- 2) Two third of the nurses i.e. 120(67.4%) were Bed Side Nurses, 54(30.3%) were Supervisors and 4(2.3%) were Nursing Administrators. Their experience ranged from 6 months to 36 years (mean 20 +8.6 years) (Table- 2). They worked in varied number of areas ranging from 1-17.
Level of satisfaction Higher score on Job Satisfaction Scale indicates higher level of job satisfaction. Score on the job satisfaction ranged from 119 to 284 (minimum = 60 and maximum = 300) with a mean score of 221(SD+27). It has been observed that 113(63.5%) nurses were satisfied
with their job, 24(13.5%) were highly satisfied, 38(21.3%) were undecided about their level of satisfaction and only 3(1.7%) were dissatisfied
with the job (Table-1).
Table 1: Job satisfaction of nurses
Overall satisfaction 24(63.5) 113(63.5) 38(21.3) 3(1.7) – 22127
1. Achievement 70(39.3) 65(36.5) 27(15.2) 10(5.6) 6(3.4) 23.24.9
2. Recognition 60(33.7) 111(62.4) 6(3.4) 1(0.6) – 24.82.6
3. Work 71(39.9) 82(46.1) 20(11.2) 4(2.2) 1(0.6) 24.34
4. Responsibility 47(26.4) 93(52.2) 33(18.5) 4(2.2) 1(0.6) 23.53.7
5. Policies and Administration 16(9.0) 79(44.4) 62(34.8) 15(8.4) 6(3.4) 20.23.9
6. Supervision 26(14.6) 120(67.4) 21(11.8) 9(5.1) 2(1.1) 22.33.5
7. Salary and Fringe benefits 11(6.2) 54(30.3) 59(33.1) 46(25.8) 8(4.5) 18.44.7\
8. Interpersonal relationship 63(35.4) 103(57.9) 9(5.1) 1(0.6) 2(1.1) 24.83.4
9. Working Conditions 27(15.2) 85(47.8) 43(24.2) 19(10.7) 4(2.2) 21.34.6
10. Personal life due to job 15(8.4) 51(28.7) 84(47.2) 27(15.2) 1(0.6) 19.43.9
Score in each section Maximum = 30 Minimum = 6
Over all score Maximum =300 Minimum = 60
On sub scales related to motivating or satisfying factors on the average nurses were satisfied or highly satisfied with achievements in the job(75.8%), recognition(96.1%), responsibility (78.6%) and work(86%). Sub scales on hygiene or maintenance factors, nurses on the average were satisfied or highly satisfied with supervision (82%), interpersonal relationship within the team (93.3%) and working conditions (63%).
Whereas on the average nurses were undecided about their level of satisfaction with salary and fringe benefits, policy and administration and
personal life due to job. As only 36.5% nurses were satisfied or highly satisfied with salary and fringe benefits, 37.1 percent were satisfied or highly satisfied with personal life due to job and 53.4% were satisfied or highly satisfied with policy and administration of hospital and rest of them were undecided as per their level of satisfaction or dissatisfied (Table-1).
Significantly more number of married nurses and nurses working in Intensive Care Units and Operation Theatre were satisfied than single nurses and nurses working in other areas respectively as revealed by Chi Square Test (P<.05)(Table-2). More number of nurses were satisfied or
highly satisfied in age group of 21-30 years, from other backward classes, from urban background as compared to nurses in age group of 31 years and above, from general category and from rural background respectively (Table-2). More number of nurses with qualification of under graduation,
professional qualification of General Nursing and Midwifery and having less than 10 years of experience were satisfied or qualification B.Sc. Nursing and nurses having highly satisfied as compared to more than 10 years of experience respectively. Higher percentage of Nursing supervisors graduation qualification, were satisfied as compared to Bed side Nurses professional and Nursing Administrators.(Table-2)
Over all score on the nurses Job Satisfaction Scale indicates that most of nurses (77 percent0 were satisfied or highly satisfied with their job. Hence more number of nurses was satisfied than dissatisfied. Similar findings have been reported by one more author as well 2 . Where as different findings were reported in another study that more number of nurses were undecided as per their level of satisfaction as compared to satisfied and dissatisfied nurses 3 . Lower level of job satisfaction was reported by few authors i.e. 19 percent, 34 percent and 61 percent
nurses were reported as satisfied in different studies. 4-6 Findings reveal that on the average nurses were satisfied in terms of achievements, recognition, work, responsibility, supervision' working conditions and interpersonal relationship. Similarly it was reported in one of the meta analysis study that job satisfaction is strongly related with stress and commitment and moderately related with recognition, autonomy, communication with peers and supervisors. Variables with small to moderately relate to satisfaction were fairness, locus of control age, years of
experience, education and professionalism 7 . Behavior of manager is reported to influence the level of satisfaction among nurses 8 . Job satisfaction is related to content and work environment 8 . Nurses have shown high satisfaction on physical need satisfaction, working conditions
and wage satisfaction 10 . Nurses enjoy their work and working with patient is a strong source of satisfaction for them 5 . Strength of culture and job satisfaction Strength of culture and job satisfaction has cause and effect relationship was also reported in the literature 11 . Whereas finding of another study reveals that interpersonal relationships are very important in determining job satisfaction 12 . It was reported by another author that area of greater satisfaction among nurses were recognition from nursing peers, doctors with whom they worked, amount of responsibility, immediate supervisors, salary, child care facilities, flexibility in schedule hours of work, week end offs, opportunity to write and publish and opportunity to participate in research 6 . Nurses were satisfied with personnel policy of working i.e. leaves, type of shift, days off, salary and
allowances (although low) and accommodations. They were satisfied for equipment and their replacement 13 . Nurses were on the average
undecided on the level of satisfaction with salary and fringe benefits, policy and administration and personal life due to job in the present study. Whereas it has been reported in the literature that working conditions are most serious source of dissatisfaction among nurses.
Problem with recognition, autonomy, gender family role also contribute as a source of dissatisfaction 5 . Nurses were dissatisfied for sanction of leave and compensation for extra duty. They were dissatisfied with insufficient lien and their mending 13 . It has been further reported that nurses have shown low level of satisfaction on ego need satisfaction, related with supervisor and individual job satisfaction 10 . Another reported dissatisfaction factors are not recognition or support by manager, criticizing during crisis and not following through on problems'. Factors
such as lack of promotion, rewards for outstanding performance, recognizing the qualification, respect from class IV employees, provision of
accommodation and supply of equipment were considered as dissatisfying. Working during night duty is also considered as dissatisfying factor'. Another reported source of dissatisfaction were inadequate working conditions, counter-productive attitude within employing organization, remuneration, unreasonable expectations of employers or supervisors. Other reasons were gender role issues, collegial relationship,
nursing education and lack of respect and recognition'.
Over all most of nurses were satisfied with their job. Nurses were satisfied with achievement related to job, recognition, work, responsibility,
supervision and interpersonal relationship and undecided on the level of satisfaction with salary and fringe benefits, policy and administration and
personal life due to job. Significantly more number of married nurses were satisfied or highly satisfied as compared to single nurses. Significantly higher number of nurses working in Intensive Care Units and Operation Theatre were satisfied or highly satisfied as compare to nurses working in other areas of hospital.
In order to have efficient and productive nurses and satisfied patients it is the responsibility of Nursing Administrators to know the satisfying and dissatisfying factors related to their job and take necessary actions accordingly.
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