Manpreet Kaur, Monika Dogra, Sumit Kumar

Introduction: Sele is a self-portrait photograph, typically taken with a digital camera or camera phone held in the hand or supported by a sele stick. Seles are often shared on social networking services such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter, and then people are waiting for comments of friends and others. This has led to chain of reactions leading to a complex addiction disorder which we may be easily called as Sele addiction disorder. A sele addiction is when a person is almost obsessively taking seles, multiple times a day, and posting. This might lead to certain psychological disorders like low self-esteem when they do not get positive comments for their seles.

Objectives: To assess sele addiction and self- esteem among nursing students.

Material and methods: Non-experimental correlational research design was used to conduct study at Khalsa college of Nursing, Amritsar. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the study sample. Data collection was done using Questionnaire comprised of a)socio-demographic prole of students, b)Standardized seltis behaviour scale to assess sele addiction and c)Standardized Rosenberg self-esteem scale to assess self-esteem.

Results: Among 372 nursing students more than half (56.5%) of the nursing students had acute sele addiction and majority (91.4%) were having normal self-esteem. There was a very weak negative correlation (r= -.063) between sele addiction and self-esteem. Two third (68%) of the students were using WhatsApp followed by 33.1% using Instagram. One third (37.4%) of the students took seles to send to their friends. There was an association of self-esteem among nursing students with frequency of taking sele (average seles in a day).

Key words: Nursing students; Sele addiction; Self-esteem.

Address for correspondence

Manpreet kaur

M.Sc. (Nsg) Mental health nursing Clinical instructor Khalsa College of Nursing, Amritsar (Punjab) manpreetsandhu238@gmail.com

Introduction:

Over a period of time, technological advancement has given us new . Last two decades were known for computer addiction disorder and disorders. Smartphone has intruded in our daily life so much that without it we cannot survive. Many of today’s generation smartphones are equipped with high resolution camera, called as sele camera. Though people were fond of taking photographs of their own and others since many decades, with sele camera it has led to an extreme effect.1 In the last few years, capturing seles has become a global phenomenon. Individuals from all socio-economic, sexual category, race and age groups take seles in different occasions. It is entertaining and attracts the young minds.2 It is coupled with posting the sele on social networking sites. Further they are waiting for comments of friends and others. This has led to chain of reactions leading to a complex addiction disorder may be known as Sele addiction disorder.1 A sele addiction is when a person is almost obsessively taking seles, multiple times a day and posting that to Snapchat, Facebook or Instagram. This might lead to certain psychological disorders like low self- esteem when they do not get positive comments for their seles.3

In fact, due to seles craze in India the accident rate has become very high. A new research has stated that India has the highest number of sele related deaths in the world. The study maintained that from March 2014 to September 2016, a whopping 60 percent of the sele deaths took place in India.4 The study, entitled Me, Myself and My Kille: Characterizing and Preventing Sele Deaths, has estimated that out of the 127 sele deaths took place across the globe, 76 occurred in India. After tragic sele related deaths Mumbai has ordered a ban on taking seles. It has declared 16 no- sele zones in a bid to stop people putting themselves in danger.5

Researcher has personally experienced and noticed that nowadays sele craze is so much that everyone around, especially youngsters are seen capturing seles and posting it on their social media accounts like Facebook, Instagram and then waiting eagerly for the likes and comments from friends. In case they do not get enough response or negative response they start feeling low about themselves. Further it may affect their behavior and self-esteem to an extent that their relationships start getting affected. Since students in the nursing colleges are also youngsters, they are no exception to this phenomenon, therefore the researcher decided to conduct a study on the relationship between sele addiction and self-esteem among nursing students.

Objective: To assess relationship between sele addiction and self-esteem among nursing students.

Material and Methods: Quantitative research approach with non-experimental correlational research design was utilized in present study. The study was conducted in Khalsa College of Nursing, Amritsar, Punjab. Total 372 nursing students using smart phone and having social media account were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Data was collected through questionnaires consisting of 3 parts. PART A: Socio-demographic prole which consisted of 14 items for obtaining personal information of nursing students such as age (in years), gender, educational status, marital status, type of family, place of living, monthly family income (in rupees), places where most often seles are taken, types of sele shot taken, frequency of taking sele (average in a day), frequency of posting sele (average in a day), insecurity after taking sele, social media account, main reasons behind taking seles. Part B was Seltis behaviour scale (Dr. Janarthanan Balakrishnan & Dr. Mark D Grifths) which consisted of 20 items to assess sele addiction among nursing scale ( 4 =strongly agree; 3 =agree; 2=disagree; 1= strongly disagree). Items 2, students.6 Permission was obtained from 5, 6, 8, 9 were reverse scored. Score ranged the authors.

It is a ve-point likert scale: (5=strongly agree; 4=agree; 3=neither agree or disagree; 2 =disagree; 1 = strongly disagree). The total items in the scale are 20. I t e m s 1 , 7 , 1 3 a n d 1 9 r e l a t e d t o environmental enhancement, Items 2, 8, 14 and 20 related to social competition, Items 3, 9 and 15 related to attention seeking, Items 4, 10 and 16 related  to mood modication, Items 5, 11, 17 related to self condence, Items 6, 12, 18 related to social conformity. Maximum score was100 whereas minimum score was one(1). (Table-1)

Part C : Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, M. 1965): The scale is a 10 items Likert scale that measures global self- worth by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self. All items are answered using a 4- point likert scale format ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Criterion measures: It is four-point likert from 0-30, higher score indicated higher self-esteem i.e. normal self esteem (16-30) and low self esteem (0-15). (Table-2)

Prior to data collection procedure, the formal permission was obtained from the principal of selected college, Amritsar Punjab. On the day of data collection, the researcher gave self-introduction to the nursing students and explained the purpose of gathering information. They were assured that the responses will be kept condential and information will be used only for research purpose. Informed written consent was taken from participants. It was a self-administered tool and the time taken by each student for lling up the tool was 25 – 30 minutes approximately. The responses were statistically analysed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics such as Chi square test and ndings were presented by using bar diagrams, Pie charts and tables. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 software.

 

Table 1: Scoring of Level of selfitis behavior scale

 

S NO. LEVEL OF SELFIE ADDICTION RANGE
1 Border line 1-33
2 Acute 34-67
3 Chronic 68-100

 

Table 2: Scoring of level of self-esteem

 

S.NO LEVEL OF SELF ESTEEM RANGE
1 Normal self esteem 16-30
2 Low self esteem 0-15

 

Results:

T a b l e 3 : S o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c Characteristics of participants

N=372

 

Variables n(%)
Age (in years)

17-18

19-20

21-22

Above-22

47(12.6)

155(41.7)

121(32.5)

49(13.2)

Gender

Male Female

31(8.3)

341(91.7)

Educational status

A.N.M

G.N.M

B.Sc. Nursing

Post basic B.Sc. Nursing M.Sc. Nursing

16(4.3)

115(30.9)

205(55.1)

24(6.5)

12(3.2)

Type of family

Nuclear Joint

273(73.4)

99(26.6)

Place of living

Hostel Home Paying guest

With Relatives

69(18.5)

269(72.3)

23( 6.2)

11( 3.0)

Marital status

Married Unmarried

15(4.0)

357(96.0)

Monthly family income(in rupees)

10,000-15,000

15,001-20000

20001-25000

Above-25000

73(19.6)

61(16.4)

60(16.1)

178(47.8)

Table 3 shows that age of 41.7% students was from 19-20 years followed by 32.5% were of 21-22 years. Majority (91.7%) of the students were females and only 8.3% males. More than half (55%) of the subjects were studying in Basic B.Sc. Nursing followed by GNM (30.9%). Whereas 6.5% subjects were studying in Post Basic B.Sc. Nursing and 4.3% in ANM course. Very few (3.2%) subjects were studying in M.Sc. Nursing. Majority (73.4%) of the students hailed from nuclear families and remaining (26.6%) were from joint families. As per place of living 72.3% of the students were residing in their own homes, 18.5% were hostellers and 6.2% were living as paying guests and very few students (3.0%) were living with their relatives. Majority (96%) of students were unmarried and only 4% were married. Nearly half (47.8%) of the students had family income of above Rs.25,000/- followed by Rs.10, 000- 15000/-(19.6%), Rs.15, 001-20,000 (16.4%) and Rs. 20001-25,000/- (16.1%).

Table 4 depicts that considering places where most often seles were taken, 36.6% students took seles at home, and almost e q u a l n u m b e r t o o k s e l  e s a t college(30.1%) and public places (30.6%). Very few (2.7%) took seles in a bathroom. As per type of sele shot taken, two-third (61.6%) of the students took sele shot with friends, whereas head/face shot was taken by 25.3% participants, 8.1% sele shot were with surroundings and very few (5.1%) body shots were taken.

On an average daily frequency of taking sele, majority (78.5%) of the students were taking 1-5 seles in a day. According to average daily frequency of posing sele, majority (89.2%) of the students were posting 0-3 seles in a day and very few subjects (4.3%) were posting above 6 seles in a day. According to insecurity after taking sele, more than half (54.3%) of the subjects under study did not get any insecurity, whereas 39.8% subjects felt insecure sometimes. However, 5.9% subjects always felt insecure after taking sele.

Table 4: Selfie taking pattern among participants

 

Variable n(%)
Places where most often selfies are taken  

136(36.6)

114(30.6)

112(30.1)

10(2.7)

a) Home
b) In public places
c) At college
d)In a bathroom
Types of selfie shot taken  
a) Head / face shot 94(25.3)
b) Body shot 19(5.1)
c) With surroundings 30(8.1)
d)With friends 229(61.6)
Frequency of taking selfie(average in a day)  
a) 1-5

b) 6-10

Above 10

292(78.5)

37(9.9)

43(11.6)

Frequency of posting selfie(average in a day)  
0-3 332(89.2)
4-6 24(6.5)
Above 6 16(4.3)
Insecurity after taking selfie  
a) Yes 22(5.9)
b) No 202(54.3)
c) Sometimes 148 39.(8)
Social media account (can tick multiple options)  
a) Facebook 49(13.2)
b) Instagram 123(33.1)
c) Whatsapp 253(68.0)
d) Snapchat 60(16.1)
e) All above 109(29.3)
Main reasons  behind  taking  selfies  (can  tick  

 

139(37.4)

106(28.5)

43(11.6)

92(24.7)

18(4.8)

69(18.5)

multiple options)
a) To send to friends
b) To put on social media
c) To show people that I have friends
d) To share current life style
e) To ask for attention
f) Because I am bored

Commonly used social media account were WhatsApp   (68%),   Instagram   (33.1%) snapchat (16.1%), Facebook (13.2%) and 29.3% were using all social media account. According to main reasons behind taking seles, 37.4% of the students took seles to send to friends, whereas 28.5% took seles to put on social media. Nearly One fourth (24.7%) of students took seles to share current life style and 11.6% took seles to show people that they have friends. Approximately same perportion of participants took seles because they were f e e l i n g b o r e d ( 1 8 . 5 % ) a n d o t h e r reasons(18%). Very few students (4.8%) were taking seles to seek attention. (table 4)

Table 5 depicts that more than half (56.5%) of the students had acute sele addiction while 42.5% had chronic sele addiction and only 1.1% were having borderline addiction. The overall mean and standard deviation was 64.96+ 12.1. Hence, it is concluded that majority of the nursing students have acute sele addiction.

Table 6 depicts the self-esteem of nursing students. It shows that majority (91.4%) of the students had normal self-esteem and only (8.6%) students had low self-esteem. The overall mean and SD was 18.98+

3.206. Hence, it is concluded that majority of the nursing students have normal level of self-esteem.

Table 7 depicts details of sele behavior scale. More than 70% of participants agree/strongly agree that taking seles gives me a good feeling to better enjoy my environment, taking seles provides better memories about the occasion and the experience, I take seles as trophies for future memories, taking more seles improves my mood and makes me feel happy. More than half of participants were disagree/strongly disagreeing with the statements I feel more popular when I post my seles on social media, I post frequent seles to get more ‘likes’ and comments on social media, When I don’t take seles, I feel detached from my peer group.

Table 8 represents the correlation of sele- addiction and self-esteem among nursing students. The coefcient of correlation of sele addiction and self-esteem among nursing students was calculated using Karl Pearson correlation coefcient formula and very weak negative correlation (r= -.063) between sele addiction and self-esteem among nursing students was found. Hence, it can be concluded that although very weak but negative correlation exist between sele addiction and self-esteem i.e., if sele addiction increase, self-esteem decreases and vice versa.

Table 9 represents the association of self- esteem among nursing students with frequency of taking sele (average in a day). It shows that maximum (292) students were taking 1-5 seles in a day among them majority (89.4%) were having normal self- esteem and remaining (10.6%) were having low self-esteem. Minimum (37) students were taking 6-10 seles in a day among them all (100%) were having normal self- esteem. In order to explore the association of sele addiction with frequency of taking sele (average in a day) of nursing students with was computed by using Fisher exact test and was found to be statistically signicant at p<0.05. Hence, it is concluded that there is an association of self-esteem among nursing students with frequency of taking sele (average in a day).

 

Table 5: level of selfie addiction among nursing students

N=372

Level of selfie addiction (Score) n (%)                  Mean + S.D. (Score)
Border Line (1-33) 4 (1.1)
Acute (34-67) 210 (56.5)              64.96 + 12.111
Chronic (68-100) 158 (42.5)
Maximum Score = 100, Minimum Score = 1    

 

 

Table 6: Level of Self esteem among nursing students

N=372

Level of self-esteem (Score) n %                   Mean + S.D. (Score)
Normal (16-30) 340 91.4                 18.98+ 3.206
Low (<15) 32 8.6
Maximum Score = 30, Minimum Score = 0    

 

Table 7: Details of Selfie Behavior Scale

N-372

 

Sr.

No

Statement Strongly Agree

5

Agree

 

4

Uncertain 3 Disagree

 

2

Strongly Disagree

1

1. Taking seles gives me a good feeling to

better enjoy my environment

143

(38.4)

156

(42.0)

42

(11.3)

29

(7.8)

2

(0.5)

2. Sharing my seles creates healthy competition with my friends and

colleagues

18

(4.8)

109

(29.3)

83

(22.3)

149

(40.1)

13

(3.5)

3. I gain enormous attention by sharing my

seles on social media

29

(7.8)

112

(30.1)

108

(29.0)

97

(26.1)

26

(7.0)

4. I am able to reduce my stress level by

taking seles

32

(8.6)

152

(41.9)

42

(11.3)

125

(33.6)

21

(5.6)

5. I feel condent when I take a sele 56

(15.1)

161

(43.3)

49

(13.2)

98

(26.3)

8

(2.2)

6. I gain more acceptance among my peer group when I take sele and share it on

social media

69

(18.5)

112

(30.1)

72

(19.4)

102

(27.4)

11

(3.0)

7. I am able to express myself more in my

environment through seles

7

(1.9)

149

(40.1)

89

(23.9)

96

(25.8)

31

(8.3)

8. Taking different sele poses helps increase

my social status

28

(7.5)

131

(35.2)

78

(21.0)

86

(23.1)

49

(13.2)

9. I feel more popular when I post my seles

on social media

18

(4.8)

39

(10.5)

111

(29.8)

152

(40.9)

52

(14.0)

10. Taking more seles improves my mood

and makes me feel happy

102

(27.4)

162

(43.5)

70

(10.8)

32

(8.6)

6

(1.6)

11. I become more positive about myself when

I take seles

92

(24.7)

137

(36.8)

89

(23.9)

36

(9.7)

18

(4.8)

12. I become a strong member of my peer

group through sele postings

49

(13.2)

148

(39.8)

103

(27.7)

66

(17.7)

6

(1.6)

13. Taking seles provides better memories

about the occasion and the experience

192

(51.6)

169

(45.4)

5

(1.3)

4

(1.1)

2

(0.5)

14. I post frequent seles to get more ‘likes’

and comments on social media

59

(15.9)

112

(30.1)

11

(3.0)

108

(29.0)

82

(22.0)

15. By posting seles, I expect my friends to

appraise me

17

(4.6)

142

(38.2)

99

(26.6)

96

(25.8)

18

(4.8)

16. Taking seles instantly modies my mood 98

(26.3)

152

(40.9)

68

(18.3)

46

(12.4)

8

(2.2)

17. I take more seles and look at them

privately to increase my condence

69

(18.5)

169

(45.4)

32

(8.6)

74

(19.9)

28

(7.5)

18. When I don’t take seles, I feel detached

from my peer group

31

(8.3)

52

(14.0)

43

(11.6)

149

(40.1)

97

(26.1)

19. I take seles as trophies for future

memories

142

(38.2)

166

(44.6)

28

(7.5)

28

(7.5)

8

(2.2)

20. I use photo editing tools to enhance my

sele to look better than others

52

(14.0)

132

(35.5)

39

(10.5)

65

(17.5)

84

(22.6)

 

 

Table 8: Correlation of selfie-addiction and self-esteem among nursing students

N=372

Variable                                                                 Mean score      S.D.                  r

Self-Esteem                                                                  18.98         3.206            -.063NS

Selfie Addiction                                                            64.96       12.111

Self-esteem Score range 0-30                           NS=Non-signicant Sele Addiction Score range 1 -100

Table 9: Association of Self -esteem among nursing students with frequency of taking selfie (average in a day).

 

Frequency of taking

               Level of Self-Esteem                  Tota l   df

Fisher

 

selfie (average in a day)

Normal n(%)

Low n(%)

N              exact test

 

1-5                                               261(89.4)                 31(10.6)            292

6-10                                              37(100)                      0(0)                 37

Above 10                                      42(97.7)                    1(2.3)               43

2        7.14*

 

Maximum Score = 30                                                         * significant at p<0.05 Minimum Score = 0

 

Discussion: A sele addiction is when a person is almost obsessively taking seles, multiple times a day, and posting that to whatever it might be — Snapchat, or Facebook, Instagram, This might lead to low self-esteem when they do not get positive comments for their seles. Nursing students from all courses were chosen as study subjects and ndings reveal that more than half (56.5%) of the nursing students had acute sele addiction whereas very little (1.1%) had borderline addiction. This nding was supported by the results of a study on sele addiction among 100 college students from selected Arts College, Tirupattur, TamilNadu. The results revealed that more than half (53%) of the students were identied with moderate sele addiction, 41% had mild addiction, less no of students (4%) were addicted severely and 2% of the students were not addicted.8

According to results of present study majority (91.4%) of nursing students had normal self- esteem whereas only few (8.6%) had low self- esteem. Similar ndings were given by a correlational study to assess relationship between self-esteem levels of people who share seles on Facebook and gratications of sharing seles on Facebook among 400 (200 males and 200 females) students from ve colleges in Bangalore. The study highlighted that Out of 400 respondents, 78(19.5%) having high level of self-esteem, other 306 (76.5%) having normal level of self-esteem and rest 17 (4.25%) having low level of self- esteem.9

As per ndings of the relationship between sele addiction and self-esteem of the present study, there was very weak negative correlation (-.063) between sele addiction and self- esteem. Similar ndings were given by a survey that was done to examine the relationships between the addictive use of social media, self esteem, and satisfaction with life among 364 students of Notre Dame University. The Results showed that addictive use of social media had a negative association with self-esteem(r = .23, N = 364, p< .001), and the latter had a positive association with satisfaction with life.10

CONCLUSION

It is concluded from the ndings that very weak but negative correlation (r= -.063) exists between sele addiction and self esteem among nursing students. Mental health nurses should take practical measures to reduce the negative effects of sele addiction such as campaigns can be organized and health education on the awareness of the negative effects of sele addiction would be of greater help. Hence, it is recommended that certain strategies should be used to manage sele addiction as well as to improve self esteem among nursing students.

References

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